It builds on research collaborations between demographers, ageing researchers and epidemiologists at the universities of Stockholm and Umeå and the Karolinska institutet in Stockholm.

We first investigate the dependency threshold: improved survival from disease that not only increases longevity but also raises the age threshold for dependency.

Second, we consider the role of policies that support work-family balance earlier in life as a source of gender inequalities in ageing and dependency.

Third, we examine changes in late-life labor-force participation and retirement that underlie the economic dependence of the older generation on the younger one.

Fourth, we study changes in family and living arrangements that may exacerbate or alleviate dependency in old age.

Finally, microsimulations are conducted to assess the implications for the future of the combined trends in demography, health, household structure and socioeconomic factors.